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IPSA Congress 2014 - Porto Alegre - Brazil - Sunday, September 29, 2013

It is my pleasure to present the
III Congress of the International Pediatric Sleep Association (IPSA) - Porto Alegre (Brazil) 3-5 December 2014.

The importance of sleep for health, learning and psychomotor development in infancy, childhood and adolescence has been emphasized in the pediatric research in the last two decades and it has become more and more evident that ensuring a good sleep during development is of key importance for a later healthy life.
The IPSA Congress is an influential forum for sleep practitioners from around the world to network and exchange views, whilst learning from world-class researchers about the latest scientific and clinical developments in the field.
The success of the last two Congresses in Rome 2010 and Manchester 2012 has highlighted the magnitude of Pediatric Sleep Medicine in the scientific community and we hope that the 2014 Congress will provide a perfect balance between didactic and practical needs, in order to provide the technical knowhow and up-to-date knowledge that will enable participants to improve their practice.
As traditional for IPSA, the most renowned International opinion leaders in the field of Pediatric Sleep Medicine speakers will join the Congress and will highlight the recent significant advances in both basic science and clinical sleep medicine during development.
I hope that the world paediatric sleep community will gather together in the lively city of Porto Alegre to celebrate the best clinical practice and the latest advances in Pediatric Sleep Medicine.

Oliviero Bruni
President of the International Pediatric Sleep Association


IPSA Congress 5-7 december 2012 - Manchester City (UK)

IPSA Congress 5-7th December 2012 - Manchester (UK)  


IPSA 2010 - Abstract Book




Guia SAOS Infantil Espanola

New guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of OSA in children published by the Spanish Pediatric Sleep Group. (available only in Spanish)



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Honey for acute cough in children.
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Honey for acute cough in children.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;12:CD007094

Authors: Oduwole O, Meremikwu MM, Oyo-Ita A, Udoh EE

BACKGROUND: Cough causes concern for parents and is a major cause of outpatient visits. It can impact on quality of life, cause anxiety and affect sleep in parents and children. Several remedies, including honey, have been used to alleviate cough symptoms.
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of honey for acute cough in children in ambulatory settings.
SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL (2014, Issue 10), MEDLINE (1950 to October week 4, 2014), EMBASE (1990 to November 2014), CINAHL (1981 to November 2014), Web of Science (2000 to November 2014), AMED (1985 to November 2014), LILACS (1982 to November 2014) and CAB abstracts (2009 to January 2014).
SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing honey given alone, or in combination with antibiotics, versus nothing, placebo or other over-the-counter (OTC) cough medications to participants aged from one to 18 years for acute cough in ambulatory settings.
DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently screened search results for eligible studies and extracted data on reported outcomes.
MAIN RESULTS: We included three RCTs, two at high risk of bias and one at low risk of bias, involving 568 children. The studies compared honey with dextromethorphan, diphenhydramine, 'no treatment' and placebo for the effect on symptomatic relief of cough using a seven-point Likert scale. The lower the score, the better the cough symptom being assessed.Moderate quality evidence showed that honey may be better than 'no treatment' in reducing the frequency of cough (mean difference (MD) -1.05; 95% confidence interval (CI) -1.48 to -0.62; I(2) statistic 23%; two studies, 154 participants). High quality evidence also suggests that honey may be better than placebo for reduction of cough frequency (MD -1.85; 95% Cl -3.36 to -0.33; one study, 300 participants). Moderate quality evidence suggests that honey does not differ significantly from dextromethorphan in reducing cough frequency (MD -0.07; 95% CI -1.07 to 0.94; two studies, 149 participants). Low quality evidence suggests that honey may be slightly better than diphenhydramine in reducing cough frequency (MD -0.57; 95% CI -0.90 to -0.24; one study, 80 participants).Adverse events included mild reactions (nervousness, insomnia and hyperactivity) experienced by seven children (9.3%) from the honey group and two (2.7%) from the dextromethorphan group; the difference was not significant (risk ratio (RR) 2.94; 95% Cl 0.74 to 11.71; two studies, 149 participants). Three children (7.5%) in the diphenhydramine group experienced somnolence (RR 0.14; 95% Cl 0.01 to 2.68; one study, 80 participants). When honey was compared with placebo, four children (1.8%) in the honey group and one (1.3%) from the placebo group complained of gastrointestinal symptoms (RR 1.33; 95% Cl 0.15 to 11.74). However, there was no significant difference between honey versus dextromethorphan, honey versus diphenhydramine or honey versus placebo. No adverse event was reported in the 'no treatment' group.
AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Honey may be better than 'no treatment', diphenhydramine and placebo for the symptomatic relief of cough, but it is not better than dextromethorphan. None of the included studies assessed the effect of honey on 'cough duration' because intervention and follow-up were for one night only. There is no strong evidence for or against the use of honey.

PMID: 25536086 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Ephedrine for myasthenia gravis, neonatal myasthenia and the congenital myasthenic syndromes.
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Ephedrine for myasthenia gravis, neonatal myasthenia and the congenital myasthenic syndromes.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;12:CD010028

Authors: Vrinten C, van der Zwaag AM, Weinreich SS, Scholten RJ, Verschuuren JJ

BACKGROUND: Myasthenia is a condition in which neuromuscular transmission is affected by antibodies against neuromuscular junction components (autoimmune myasthenia gravis, MG; and neonatal myasthenia gravis, NMG) or by defects in genes for neuromuscular junction proteins (congenital myasthenic syndromes, CMSs). Clinically, some individuals seem to benefit from treatment with ephedrine, but its effects and adverse effects have not been systematically evaluated.
OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects and adverse effects of ephedrine in people with autoimmune MG, transient neonatal MG, and the congenital myasthenic syndromes.
SEARCH METHODS: On 17 November 2014, we searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Group Specialized Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE and EMBASE. We also searched reference lists of articles, conference proceedings of relevant conferences, and prospective trial registers. In addition, we contacted manufacturers and researchers in the field.
SELECTION CRITERIA: We considered randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs comparing ephedrine as a single or add-on treatment with any other active treatment, placebo, or no treatment in adults or children with autoimmune MG, NMG, or CMSs.
DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed study design and quality, and extracted data. We contacted study authors for additional information. We collected information on adverse effects from included articles, and contacted authors.
MAIN RESULTS: We found no RCTs or quasi-RCTs, and therefore could not establish the effect of ephedrine on MG, NMG and CMSs. We describe the results of 53 non-randomised studies narratively in the Discussion section, including observations of endurance, muscle strength and quality of life. Effects may differ depending on the type of myasthenia. Thirty-seven studies were in participants with CMS, five in participants with MG, and in 11 the precise form of myasthenia was unknown. We found no studies for NMG. Reported adverse effects included tachycardia, sleep disturbances, nervousness, and withdrawal symptoms.
AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There was no evidence available from RCTs or quasi-RCTs, but some observations from non-randomised studies are available. There is a need for more evidence from suitable forms of prospective RCTs, such as series of n-of-one RCTs, that use appropriate and validated outcome measures.

PMID: 25515947 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Three-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography analysis of enlargement of the pharyngeal airway by the Herbst appliance.
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Three-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography analysis of enlargement of the pharyngeal airway by the Herbst appliance.

Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2014 Dec;146(6):776-85

Authors: Iwasaki T, Takemoto Y, Inada E, Sato H, Saitoh I, Kakuno E, Kanomi R, Yamasaki Y

INTRODUCTION: Pharyngeal airway size is increasingly recognized as an important factor in obstructive sleep apnea. However, few studies have examined the changes of pharyngeal airway form after dental procedures for treating obstructive sleep apnea during growth. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the Herbst appliance on the 3-dimensional form of the pharyngeal airway using cone-beam computed tomography.
METHODS: Twenty-four Class II subjects (ANB, ≥5°; 11 boys; mean age, 11.6 years) who required Herbst therapy with edgewise treatment had cone-beam computed tomography images taken before and after Herbst treatment. Twenty Class I control subjects (9 boys; mean age, 11.5 years) received edgewise treatment only. The volume, depth, and width of the pharyngeal airway were compared between the groups using measurements from 3-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography images of the entire pharyngeal airway.
RESULTS: The increase of the oropharyngeal airway volume in the Herbst group (5000.2 mm(3)) was significantly greater than that of the control group (2451.6 mm(3)). Similarly, the increase of the laryngopharyngeal airway volume in the Herbst group (1941.8 mm(3)) was significantly greater than that of the control group (1060.1 mm(3)).
CONCLUSIONS: The Herbst appliance enlarges the oropharyngeal and laryngopharyngeal airways. These results may provide a useful assessment of obstructive sleep apnea treatment during growth.

PMID: 25432259 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

The successful management of respiratory complications with long-term, low-dose macrolide administration in pediatric heart transplant recipients.
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The successful management of respiratory complications with long-term, low-dose macrolide administration in pediatric heart transplant recipients.

Int Heart J. 2014;55(6):560-3

Authors: Homma S, Takahashi K, Nihei S, Kato F, Sugihara S, Nunoda S

We report three pediatric heart transplant (HTx) patients whose respiratory symptoms were successfully controlled with long-term, low-dose macrolide administration (clarithromycin: CAM; approximately 2.5 mg/kg bid). The first case was an 18-year-old boy who underwent HTx at the age of three for dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Beginning at age 5, he had repeated fevers and respiratory symptoms. He was diagnosed with chronic sinusitis at age 11 and sinobronchial syndrome with mild bronchiectasis at age 14. Administration of long-term, low-dose CAM and otolaryngeal topical therapy led to significant improvement of his symptoms. The second case was a 7-year-old boy who underwent HTx for DCM at age one. Starting at age 4, he had repeated fevers and cough due to atelectasis and pneumonia. As antibiotics and respiratory physical therapy proved ineffective, he received long-term, low-dose CAM, resulting in successful control of his atelectasis and recurrent pneumonia. The third case was a 13-year-old boy who underwent HTx at age 6 for DCM. He had chronic sinusitis starting at age 7, and was diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome at age 10. Adenotonsillectomy and continuous positive airway pressure support therapy were indicated. At age 13, long-term, lowdose CAM administration was started following mycoplasma infection. In all three cases, the levels of calcineurin inhibitors (cyclosporine and tacrolimus) and everolimus were kept in the optimal range with careful drug monitoring. Longterm, low-dose macrolide administration effectively prevents and treats respiratory complications in pediatric HTx patients as long as attention is paid to potential drug interactions.

PMID: 25297501 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

A case of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome in a patient with FOXG1-related disorder.
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A case of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome in a patient with FOXG1-related disorder.

Epilepsia. 2014 Nov;55(11):e116-9

Authors: Terrone G, Bienvenu T, Germanaud D, Barthez-Carpentier MA, Diebold B, Delanoe C, Passemard S, Auvin S

Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) is a drug-resistant epileptic encephalopathy of childhood with a heterogeneous etiology. Recently, genome-wide association studies have led to the identification of new de novo mutations associated with this epileptic syndrome. Herein, we report an 8-year-old child with intellectual disability, severe postnatal microcephaly, Rett-like features, and LGS, carrying a de novo missense mutation in the forkhead box G1 (FOXG1) gene. This gene is responsible for FOXG1 syndrome, characterized by severe postnatal microcephaly, moderate postnatal growth deficiency, mental retardation with poor social interaction, stereotyped behavior and dyskinesias, absent language, sleep disorders, and epilepsy. Nonspecific epilepsy syndromes have been associated with this genetic disorder. Thus, we hypothesize that FOXG1 might be a new candidate gene in the etiology of LGS and suggest screening for this gene in cases of LGS with concomitant microcephaly and clinical features overlapping with Rett syndrome.

PMID: 25266269 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


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