Correlations between acoustic rhinometry, subjective symptoms, and endoscopic findings in symptomatic children with nasal obstruction.
JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2015 Jun;141(6):550-5
Authors: Isaac A, Major M, Witmans M, Alrajhi Y, Flores-Mir C, Major P, Alsufyani N, Korayem M, El-Hakim H
IMPORTANCE: Nasal obstruction is common in children and difficult to quantify objectively. Symptom quantification is paramount for surgical and medical decision making. Acoustic rhinometry is a relatively new technique aimed at the objective assessment of nasal obstruction. There is no standardized method for the objective assessment of the pediatric nasal airway.
OBJECTIVE: To explore the correlations between acoustic rhinometry (AR), subjective symptoms, and endoscopic findings in children presenting with nasal obstruction.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A cross-sectional, exploratory, diagnostic study of prospectively collected data from a multidisciplinary airway clinic (pulmonology, orthodontics, and otolaryngology) database at a tertiary academic referral center. Data were collected over a 2-year period (2010-2012) from 65 nonsyndromic children (38 boys) 7 years and older (mean [SD] age, 10.3 [2.5] years [range, 7-14 years]), presenting with persistent nasal obstructive symptoms for at least 1 year, without signs and symptoms of sinus disease.
INTERVENTIONS: We collected patient demographics and medical history information including allergy, asthma, and sleep-disordered breathing. Subjective nasal obstruction was scored using a visual analog scale (VAS). Sleep-disordered breathing was assessed using overnight pulse oximetry. The adenoid size, septal position, and visual severity of chronic rhinitis (endoscopic rhinitis score [ERS]) were rated on nasal endoscopy by 2 independent reviewers and validated by agreement. Acoustic rhinometry (AR) was undertaken before and after use of a decongestant.
MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Correlation and multiple regression analyses were performed to explore interrelationships between subjective nasal obstruction VAS, AR, and nasal endoscopy.
RESULTS: Among the 65 patients, 28 (43%) had symptoms of sleep-disordered breathing, 14 (22%) had allergic rhinitis, 10 (15%) had asthma, 27 (41%) had grade 3 or 4 adenoidal obstruction, 28 (43%) had an ERS of 2, 6 (9%) had an ERS of 3, and 19 (29%) had septal deviation. Significant correlations were found between subjective nasal obstruction VAS score and ERS (r = -0.364, P = .003), ERS and minimal cross-sectional area before decongestion (r = -0.278, P = .03), and adenoid size and calculated nasal resistance after decongestion (r = 0.430, P < .001). Multiple regression analysis showed that the ERS was the only significant predictor of VAS score (β of -22.089; 95% CI, -35.56 to -8.61 [P = .002]). No predictors were identified for AR variables.
CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Among the evaluated tools, endoscopy appears to be the most reliable tool to estimate the degree of subjective nasal symptoms.
PMID: 25856660 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]